Aerosols in livestock production, including particulate matter, pathogens, microbes (i.e., endotoxins), and viruses are important to livestock health, disease transmission, worker health, and overall cost of production. As particulate matter is composed of organic substances it can absorb and contain gases, microorganisms, viruses, and other agents that can enhance its biological activity and, therefore, increase the risk of health effects. A number of studies have shown high prevalence rates of respiratory illnesses in animal farmworkers due to particulate matter present in livestock production facility air. In addition, an outbreak within a herd can have devastating economic impacts on the farm and to the industry as some of the bacteria and viruses found in livestock facilities can cause animal diseases. According to the estimates made by the George Morris Centre, the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is costing a minimum of 130 million dollars per year to the Canadian swine industry. Moreover, bacteria and viruses can be easily spread to other animals, as well as to human populations, during transport.
The reduction of particulate matter and microbes in livestock production are paramount to livestock health and productivity and to the health of those who work in these environments. A number of remedial techniques to control these contaminants in livestock barns have been reported. These techniques include oil spraying, modifying feeds, litter amendment, and exhaust air treatment. There are, however, few technologies currently available on the market for air quality control. Among these remedial technologies, the electrostatic precipitation (ESP) based technology has the potential to be a robust and economically viable technology to reduce airborne particulates and associated microbes and odour in animal buildings.
Electrostatic precipitators have been effectively used to remove fine particles in flue gases from industrial plants (e.g., power, cement, metal industries) for decades. Among the advantages of ESP are low-pressure drop, high gas capacity, low energy demand, and high collection efficiency for fine particles (> 99%). Despite its desirable characteristics, ESP application in removing particulate matter, odour, and microbes in livestock facilities, as well as its impacts on animal productivity, has not yet been fully explored and investigated. Preliminary laboratory and field studies, however, have demonstrated that ESP is capable of effectively reducing dust, gases, and bacteria in livestock barns.
Although the efficacy of ESP technology has already been investigated in a number of studies, its application in livestock production is still limited to the research stage. ESP efficacy in removing microbes in poultry barns has not yet been fully investigated and needs additional studies. Detailed economic analyses such as those that look into energy savings from reduced power requirements during winter and productivity gains from improved air quality against both ESP installation and operating costs are still lacking. Moreover, a remedy to the generation of ozone, which is a by-product from the ionization process, has not been considered in other previous related studies. Thus, the proposed research aims to evaluate the strategies (e.g., material type and configuration of charging electrodes, voltage level) in minimizing ozone production in larger scales such as in commercial poultry houses. More importantly, from industry perspectives, the Chicken Farmers of Saskatchewan (CFS) are interested in applying new techniques, such as ESP, to reduce dust and associated odour and microbes in poultry barns.
In the context of microbial deactivation/elimination, the current methods used in livestock facilities, including animal transport trailers, are disinfection with oxidizing agents (e.g., chlorine, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide), fogging with an organic acid, ultraviolet irradiation, and air filtration systems. However, drawbacks of these techniques are cost, odour, residual contamination, and toxicity. More recently, a chemical-free nano-technology-based method has been reported for foodborne bacteria inactivation. In this technique, engineered water nanostructures (EWNS) are generated through electrospraying condensed water vapour recovered from room air and has been found to be effective in inactivating bacteria due to the high electric charge per surface area at the nanoscale of the generated EWNS. This technique appears promising as a non-chemical method for microbial deactivation in livestock barns as water spray is also commonly used in these facilities for cooling animals and mitigating dust levels. However, this method has been tested only at lab-scales with foodborne bacteria and airborne transmitted pathogens. Thus, this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of this method in deactivating microorganisms prevalent in livestock buildings and transport trailers.
Aims of the Project
The aims of this project:
- Reduce dust and microbes in livestock facilities, so as to reduce/eliminate risks and hazards and enhance health and safety in agricultural production.
- Improving and/or adapting existing technological advances for application in dust and microbial reduction in livestock facilities.
To achieve this project, the following objectives will be completed:
- Evaluate the efficiencies of ESP based air-cleaning techniques in removing dust in poultry houses in small, medium, and full-scale studies.
- Develop/adapt a nanospray-based technology in deactivating microbes in swine barns and investigate its potential application using a lab-scale electrospray.
- Evaluate the performance of electrospray in deactivating microbes in small and medium scale swine barns.
- Evaluate the performance of electrospray in deactivating microbes in swine transport trailers.
- Compare the results of ESP and nanospray studies to the results attained from the previously tested dust reduction strategies (i.e., oil sprinkling, v-scraper, and air treatment unit) to determine the most efficient, cost-effective, and feasible dust and microbial reduction method.
For further information about this project, please contact Program Manager Nadia Smith at 306-966-1648 or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org
Bartlett, K.H., Bittman, S., and Chipperfield, K. 2012. Efficacy of electrostatic space charge system (ESCS) to reduce the environmental impact of organic particulate matter from chicken broiler production barns in the Fraser Valley, BC. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 185: A3228.
Bonifait, L., Veillette, M., Létourneau, V., Grenier, D., and Duchaine, C. 2014. Detection of Streptococcus suis in bioaerosols of swine confinement buildings. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80(11): 3296-3304.
Brauer, H. and Varma, Y.B.G. 2012. Air Pollution Equipment. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.
Cambra‐Lopez, M., Winkel, A., van Harn, J., Ogink, N.W.M., and Aarnink, A.J.A. 2009. Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissions from poultry houses. Transactions of the ASABE 52(5):1757-1771.
Dee, S., Pitkin, A., Otake, S., and Deen, J. 2011. A four-year summary of air filtration system efficacy for preventing airborne spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Journal of Swine Health and Production 19(5): 292-294.
Hao, X.X., Li, B.M., Zhang, Q., Lin, B.Z., Ge, L.P., Wang, C.Y. and Cao, W. 2013. Disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolysed water in swine barns. Journal of Applied Microbiology 115: 703-710.
Jerez, S.B., Mukhtar, S., Faulkner, W., Casey, K.D., Borhan, M.S., and Smith, R.A. 2013. Evaluation of electrostatic particle ionization and biocurtain™ technologies to reduce air pollutants from broiler houses. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 29(6): 975-984.
Kirkham, L. 2013. Statistical modelling of PM10 and PM2.5 exposures in poultry barns, and evaluation of electrostatic precipitators to control particulate emissions. Presented at the 23rd Conference on Epidemiology in Occupational Health EPICOH 2013: Improving the Impact June 18–21, 2013, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Kirychuk, S.P., Reynolds, S.J., Koehncke, N.K., Lawson, J., Willson, P., Senthilselvan, A., Marciniuk, D., Classen, H.L., Crowe, T., Just, N., Schneberger, D., and Dosman, J.A. 2010. Endotoxin and dust at respirable and nonrespirable particle sizes are not consistent between cage- and floor-housed poultry operations. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 54(7): 824-832.
Lau, A.K., Vizcarra, A.T., Lo, K.V., and Luymes, J. 1996. Recirculation of filtered air in pig barns. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 38(4): 297-304.
Lim, T.T., Wang, C., Heber, A.J., Ni, J.-Q., Zhao, L., and Hanni, S.M. 2008. Effects of electrostatic space charge system on particulate matter emission from high-rise layer barn. ASABE Annual International Meeting, Paper Number 085143, Providence, Rhode Island, June 29-July 2, 2008.
Manitoba Agriculture. 2017. Agriculture disinfection of swine barns. Available at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/livestock/production/pork/print,disinfection-of-swine-barns.html [Accessed 18 August 2017].
Manyi-Loh, C.E., Mamphweli, S.N., Meyer, E.L., Makaka, G., Simon, M., and Okoh, A.I. 2016. An overview of the control of bacterial pathogens in cattle manure. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13: 843-869.
Mitchell, B.W., Richardson, L.J., Wilson, J.L., and Hofacre, C.L. 2004. Application of an electrostatic space charge system for dust, ammonia, and pathogen reduction in a broiler breeder house. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 20(1): 87-93.
Mussell, A. 2010. RRS costs Canadian swine industry 130 million dollars per year. Available at http://www.farmscape.ca/f2ShowScript.aspx?i=23527&q=PRRS+Costs+Canadian+Swine+Industry+130+Million+Dollars+Per+Year [Accessed 30 Aug. 2017].
Pyrgiotakis, G., McDevitt, J., Bordini, A., Diaz, E., Molina, R., Watson, C., Deloid, G., Lenard, S., Fix, N., Mizuyama, Y., Yamauchi, T., Brain, J., and Demokritou, P. 2014. A chemical free, nanotechnology based method for airborne bacterial inactivation using engineered water nanostructures. Environmental Science Nano 1: 15-26.
Pyrgiotakis, G., McDevitt, J., Yamauchi, T., and Demokritou, P. 2012. A novel method for bacterial inactivation using electrosprayed water nanostructures. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 14: 1027-1037.
Pyrgiotakis, G., Vasanthakumar, A., Gao, Y., Eleftheriadou, M., Toledo, E., DeAraujo, A., McDevitt, J., Han, T., Mainelis, G., Mitchell, R., and Demokritou, P. 2015. Inactivation of foodborne microorganism using engineered water nanostructure (EWNS). Environmental Science & Technology 49: 3737-3745.
Rimac, D., Macan, J., Varnai, V.M., Vucemilom M., Matkovic, K., Prester, L., Orct, T., Trosic, I., and Pavicic, I. 2010. Exposure to poultry dust and health effects in poultry workers: impact of mould and mite allergens. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 83:9-19.
Sobsey, M.D., Khatib, L.A., Hill, V.R., Alocilja, E., and Pillai, S. Pathogens in animal wastes and the impacts of waste management practices on their survival, transport and fate. 2006. Animal Agriculture and the Environment: National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management. J.M. Rice, D.F. Caldwell, and F.J. Humenik (eds.), pp. 609-666, Pub. Number 913C0306. St. Joseph, Michigan: ASABE.
Stein, H., Schulz, J., Kemper, N., Tichy, A., Krauss, I., Knecht, C., and Hennig-Pauka, I. 2016. Fogging low concentrated organic acid in a fattening pig unit – Effect on animal health and microclimate. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 23(4): 581-586.
St. George, S.D. and Feddes, J.J.R. 1995. Removal of airborne swine dust by electrostatic precipitation. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 37(2):103-107.
Tanaka, A. and Zhang, Y. 1996. Final report: Efficiency of a negative ionization system on dust settling in a confinement swine building. Agriculture Development Fund.
Viegas, S., Faisca, V. M., Dias, H., Clerigo, A, Carolino, E., and Viegas, C. 2013. Occupational exposure to poultry dust and effects on the respiratory system in workers. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 76(4-5): 230-239.
Yan, K. 2009. Electrostatic Precipitation: 11th International Conference on Electrostatic Precipitation. Zhejiang University Press, Hangzhou, China and Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.